Easy ways to save money
In the twentieth century the application of national taxes to income from international business has created complex yet fascinating issues. The co-ordination of national jurisdiction to tax international income has rested formally on a network of bilateral treaties, but its practical administration has relied on a community of specialists; business advisers on the one hand and national officials on the other. The rapid growth of transnational corporations has put great pressure on the international tax system, especially due to the increasing difficulty of ensuring that the internal transfer prices between related firms in different countries reflect a fair and acceptable allocation of costs and profits. Furthermore, the widespread use of intermediary companies formed in tax havens has led to complex counter-measures and a constant process of treaty renegotiation and interaction with national law. The increasingly close administrative co-operation of tax authorities has been criticized as secretive and often arbitrary. Yet proposals for a more comprehensive framework and clearer legitimizing principles and procedures have conflicted with both the vested interests of international firms and with sensitivities about national sovereignity. But major reforms are necessary, even if implemented piecemeal. Using perspectives from law, economics and social science, this book provides a systematic introduction to the major problems of international taxation of business income. In doing so, it retrieves important policy issues that have become buried in technical intricacies of the international taxation system.
Capital income taxation is a complicated issue because of the g- eral equilibrium implications these taxes have with regard to the int- sectoral and intertemporal allocation of economic resources. Together with Michael Stimmelmayr (CES, Munich) and Christian Keuschnigg (IFF, St. Gallen), Doina Radulescu from the Ifo Institute for E- nomic Research has designed a complex and particularly elegant - tertemporal general equilibrium model of the economy, called IfoMod. IfoMod makes it possible to calculate the welfare gains and losses from fundamental tax reforms in present value terms. One of the tax reforms Doina Radulescu analyses is the move - wards a dual income tax, as is used in some Scandinavian countries. She analyses this tax using German data, because it was recently p- posed, among others, by the German Council of Economic Advisors. In the meantime, IfoMod has become a standard tool for the Ifo Institute. According to the Council of Economic Advisors, it is not only sta- of-the-art, but one of the world's most developed and advanced CGE models for the purpose of analysing intertemporal allocation problems in growing economies. Hans-Werner Sinn Preface This book was written during my time acting as a PhD candidate in the Public Finance Department at the Ifo Institute for Economic Research in Munich.
Taxation is crucial to the functioning of the modern state. Tax revenues pay for public services - roads, the courts, defence, welfare assistance to the poor and elderly, and in many countries much of health care and education too. More than one third of national income in the industrialized (OECD) countries is on average taken in taxation. Taxes affect individuals in many ways. Taxes paid on income and spending directly reduce taxpayer disposable income, taxpayers face the hassle of tax returns and making payments, and they may be anxious about the possibility of investigation and enforcement action. People also adapt their activities in various ways to reduce the impact of taxation - putting money into tax-free savings accounts, or making shopping trips to other countries where taxes are lower.
In its Annual Report 2003/2004, the German Council of Economic Experts launched a dual income tax as an option for a fundamental tax reform in Germany. In February 2005, the German government appointed the Council to prepare a detailed report on economic effects of a business tax reform, with special emphasis on a dual income tax. With regard to the latter, conceptual problems of tax law and of tax administration were to be addressed as well as possible transitional problems when implementing a dual income tax. This book presents an English version of the original report completed in April 2006.
Human language seems to have arisen roughly within the last 50-100,000 years. In evolutionary terms, this is the mere blink of an eye. If this is correct, then much of what we consider distinctive to language must in fact involve operations available in pre-linguistic cognitive domains. In this book Norbert Hornstein, one of the most influential linguists working on syntax, discusses a topical set of issues in syntactic theory, including a number of original proposals at the cutting edge of research in this area. He provides a theory of the basic grammatical operations and suggests that there is only one that is distinctive to language. If this theory is correct then this narrows the evolutionary gap between verbal and non-verbal primates, thus facilitating the rapid evolutionary emergence of our linguistic capacity.
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