Easy ways to save money
The UK and the USA have historically represented opposite ends of the spectrum in their approaches to taxing corporate income. Under the British approach, corporate and shareholder income taxes have been integrated under an imputation system, with tax paid at the corporate level imputed to shareholders through a full or partial credit against dividends received. Under the American approach, by contrast, corporate and shareholder income taxes have remained separate under what is called a 'classical' system in which shareholders receive little or no relief from a second layer of taxes on dividends. Steven A. Bank explores the evolution of the corporate income tax systems in each country during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to understand the common legal, economic, political and cultural forces that produced such divergent approaches and explains why convergence may be likely in the future as each country grapples with corporate taxation in an era of globalization.
The subject of this book is the Federal Income Taxation of individuals, meaning human beings. It briefly touches on the taxation of partnerships, trusts and corporations, largely for the purpose of enhancing your understanding of how individuals are taxed when they own interests in such entities. The Federal Income Tax on individuals provides the great preponderance of the federal government's revenues. The other primary sources of government revenue, aside from borrowing money and Social Security taxes, are corporate income taxes, transfer taxes imposed on gifts and the estates of decedents, and so-called excise taxes. The latter are usually in the nature of sales taxes on particular items, such as gasoline and diesel fuel, and some are just penalties under a gentler name. This book is limited to taxation of U.S. citizens who reside in the United States, subject to some sideways glances at the implications of departing the United States or coming to it as an alien. This book is traditional in nature, and has many of the usual landmark cases on the subject. It contains numerous study problems and requires selected readings of the Internal Revenue Code and the Treasury Regulations.
Within the European Union, direct taxation is an area which often provokes controversy due to tensions between the tax sovereignty of the individual Member States and the desire for an integrated internal market. This book offers a critical review of the legislative and case-law developments in this area at the EU level, and reviews the European Commission's proposed solutions in light of their concerns regarding the proper functioning of the EU's internal market.
Luca Cerioni set out a series of benchmarks determined from the objectives expressed by the European Commission, including: the elimination of double taxation and double non-taxation; the simplification of cross-border tax compliance; the reduction of abusive forum-shopping practices and general aggressive tax planning strategies; legal certainty for all businesses and individuals carrying on activities and receiving income in more than one EU Member State. Cerioni uses these benchmarks to ask which Directives and/or rulings have left legal uncertainty, and which have ended up creating or increasing the scope for aggressive tax planning. The book puts forward a comprehensive solution for a new optimal regime relating to tax residence, which would contribute to the EU project to the mutual benefit of Member States and taxpayers.
As a thorough and critical discussion of EU tax rules in force, and of the European Court's case law in direct taxation, this book will be of great use to academic researchers and students of EU law, tax practitioners, and policy-makers at the EU and national level.
Basic Income in Japan is the first collective volume in English entirely devoted to the discussion of Japan's potential for a basic income program in the context of the country's changing welfare state. Vanderborght and Yamamori bring together over a dozen contributors to provide a general overview of the scholarly debate on universal and unconditional basic income, including a foreword by Ronald Dore. Drawing on empirical data on poverty and inequality as well as normative arguments, this balanced approach to a radical idea is essential reading for the study of contemporary Japan.
This work examines tax policies and tax systems as they arise from democratic choices, set against the background of a market economy. Professors Hettich and Winer find that democratic institutions yield complex tax systems with features that follow a varied but predictable pattern. In developing their analysis, the authors use formal modelling of voting behavior, emphasizing recent advances in the theory of probabilistic voting. This book differs from the available tax literature by relating fiscal choices directly to voting and by examining tax systems in democratic countries from a variety of perspectives. While the authors primarily focus on explaining observed features of tax systems, they also devote considerable space to the discussion of the welfare and efficiency effects of taxation in the presence of collective choice, and to a review of other models and of the related literature. In addition, they use computational general equilibrium analysis and statistical research on national and state governments in the US and Canada to link theory to empirical data.
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